(2) Romania (RO) (Example)

This is Romania, a country of about 19 million, located in Europe.

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EXTENT OF GLOBALIZATION

1. TRADE

The trade indicator includes information on imports and exports of goods and services, as well as total trade (imports + exports) as percentage of GDP. Representing trade relative to the country’s GDP (the size of its economy) shows the importance of trade in the country’s economy. Data are for the last 15 years, from 2005 to 2019, and were obtained from the World Development Indicators available through the World Bank’s DataBank. The graphs also include data on EU trade average, to give additional context to Romania’s data. The EU was selected as a point of comparison because Romania is a member state.

Imports of goods and services, % GDP (compared to the EU)
Exports of goods and services, % GDP (compared to the EU)
Trade, exports and imports, % GDP (compared to the EU)

2. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

3. ATTITUDES TOWARD GLOBALIZATION

4. PARTICIPATION IN TRADE AND INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS

5. INTERNET ACCESS

6. TOURISM

7. MIGRATION AND REMITTANCES

8. CONTAINER PORTS IN ROMANIA

DP World Constanta is the only container port in Romania. It “provides a yearly vessel throughput capacity of approximately 1,000,000 TEU” (https://www.dpworldconstanta.com/terminal-facilities/facility-overview) and had a 696,438TEU in 2017 (https://www.portstrategy.com/news101/port-operations/cargo-handling/constanta-now-targeting-hinterland-demand).  TEU stands for “twenty-foot equivalent unit” and a standard container is 1 TEU. For reference, the largest ports in the US (Port of Los Angeles, Port of Long Beach, and Port of NY & NJ) have a 4,500,000 to 4,700,000 TEU throughput in 2015 (https://www.icontainers.com/us/2017/05/16/top-10-us-ports/). The Romanian port has a private operator, Dubai Ports World (DP World), a company with 150 operations around the world, including port and industrial parks (https://www.dpworld.com/en/about-us/our-locations ; https://www.dpworld.com/en/about-us/who-we-are ).