India (IN)

This is India, a country of about 1.35 billion. It is located in South Asia. It is the country with the second highest population in the world. The capital is New Delhi. The official languages are Hindi and English. The most common religion is Hinduism and is about 80% of the population, followed by Islam at 14%.

India | History, Map, Population, Economy, & Facts | Britannica


Extent of Globalization

1. TRADE

by Grace Johnson

The trade indicator of globalization displays information on India’s imports of goods and services, exports of goods and services and the total percentage of trade in the country. Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and services India received from other countries around the world. The exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and services provided by India to other countries around the world. Imports and exports can include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, communication, construction, personal and governmental services, etc. Imports and exports exclude the compensation of employees, investment income and transfer payments. Trade is the sum of exports and imports of goods and services measured as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

The data below presents the flow of trade, imports, and exports over the past five years, 2015-2019. Trade is represented by orange; imports is represented by yellow; exports is represented by green. The data compares the number of exports, imports, and overall trade percentages over the span of five years in graph one. You can see in graph one, India has imported more goods and services than exported goods and services from 2015-2019. Graph two demonstrates the flow of trade from 2015-2019. You can see in graph two that the percentages of trade have fluctuated from 2015-2019 but peaked in 2018.

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Trade 41.9 40.1 40.7 43.4 40
Imports 22.1 20.9 21.9 23.6 21.4
Exports 19.8 19.2 18.8 19.9 18.7

Graph one
Graph two

 

 

 

 

  https://databank.worldbank.org/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators)

2. ATTITUDES TOWARD GLOBALIZATION

by Jack Miller

In India today, according to The Pew Research Center as well as Europa there are varying degrees of receptiveness of the public to the idea of globalization. These different receptions can be summed up in a set of survey questions asked to the public. These include questions like, does trade lead to increase of wages, opinions on foreign companies, and overall attitude towards business ties with foreign entities. As the data shows the population of India is relatively split for all of these questions with the population all taking different stances on the issue.

 

Does Trade Lead to Increase of Decrease in Wages for Individual Local Workers

Source: Pew Research Center

Are Foreign Companies Buying Local Companies Overall Good or Bad

Source: Pew Research Center

 

The Overall Attitude Towards Foreign Companies Building New Factories

Source: Pew Research Center

Overall Attitude Towards Growing Trade & Business Ties With Foreign Companies

Source: Pew Research Center

3. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

by Peter Smith

The foreign direct investment inflows indicator includes information on investment inflows, in % of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and BoP (Balance of payments) of US dollars, from foreign parties in India between the years 1987 and 2017. Essentially, foreign domestic net inflows are the assets transferred between a foreign direct investor and a resident investor enterprise. In Layman’s terms and in the context of India, foreign investors are non-Indian nationals or corporations who bring inflows of assets to Indian businesses.

The data as a whole is from the last thirty years, and was taken from the World Development Indicators via the World Bank’s DataBank. Analyzing the data, we can see a drastic increase in the number of foreign direct investment inflows overall between 1987 to 2017. Specifically, between the year 2005 and 2008, the amount of foreign direct investment inflows in USD, spiked from roughly 7 billion USD to 43 billion USD.

https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/114954-what-is-the-difference-between-foreign-direct-inve

https://databank.worldbank.org/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators#

4. INTERNET ACCESS

by Cameron Howell

Internet access is a very important factor for globalization. The more internet access the population has the more they can explore other cultures. They can also interact with global economies by investing and purchasing goods from other countries.

The first chart is data from 2001 to 2018. It shows data on individuals using the internet as a % of population. In 2001 it was nearly 0% and it grew slowly until 2009. The peak was in 2017 at 32% of the population.

The second chart is data from 2010 to 2018. It shows data on secure internet servers per 1 million people. In 2010 there was only 1 secure server. The number of servers began increasing in 2015 and hit 190 servers per 1 million people in 2018. A secure server is one that uses SSL (Secure Sockets Layer). This is used to encrypt data so that others are not able to access it easily. https://www.entrust.com/resources/certificate-solutions/learn/secure-server#:~:text=Secure%20servers%20are%20those%20servers,or%20encrypted%20and%20decrypted%20communication.

5. PARTICIPATION IN TRADE AND INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS

by Jordan Robinson

The participation in trade and investment agreements for India can be broken down into three categories; European treaties, Regional Trade Agreements, and Investment treaties. Being apart of a treaty means that there is an international agreement established between States in written form and governed by international law. There are two types of treaties; bilateral and multilateral. A bilateral treaty is a treaty that states only two parties. A multilateral treaty is a treaty that states multiple parties to a treaty. Once a treaty or agreement is “Entered into Force” it indicates that a treaty or agreement has become legally binding for both parties to the treaty. The graphs include data referring to the total treaties or total agreements India is involved with, to give additional context to India’s participation.

The data for Multilateral European treaties was collected from the last 72 years, 1945 to 2017, from the Treaties Office Database of European External Action Service. The data for Bilateral European treaties was collected from the last 63 years, 1956 to 2019, from the Treaties Office Database of European External Action Service. The data for Regional Trade Agreements with India was collected from The World Trade Organization. The data Bilateral Investments for India was collected from the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes.

Looking at Figure 1, India, in total, has 698 more bilateral European treaties than multilateral (Figure 1). Comparing the multilateral Regional Trade Agreement to the bilateral agreement, India has four more bilateral agreements to multilateral agreements (Figure 2). Finally, Figure 3 displays the total bilateral investment treaties India has, while also showing the treaties that have and have not been entered into force (Figure 3).

Figure 1. The direct comparison of total Bilateral European Treaties to total Multilateral European Treaties.
Figure 2. The sum of Regional Trade Agreements with India sectioned into Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements.
Figure 4. The sum of Bilateral Investments Treaties with India sectioned into Entered force and Non-entered force treaties.

https://icsid.worldbank.org/resources/databases/bilateral-investment-treaties

http://rtais.wto.org/UI/PublicSearchByMemberResult.aspx?MemberCode=356&lang=1&redirect=1

https://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/searchByType.do?id=1

https://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/searchByType.do?id=2

6. STUDY ABROAD / HOSTING INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS

by Samantha Hampton

There are many students across the world that hosts international students who are studying abroad. In 2018/2019, there was 1,905,299 international students and had an increase of 0.05% from the previous year. Many students who study abroad are obtaining their undergraduate degree from another country’s university. The United States hosts many international students around the world; however, the top three countries are China with approximately 369,548 students, India with 202,014 students, and South Korea with 52,250 students. Students from China had a large increase after the year 2007, students from India had an increase around 2014, and students from South Korea has slowly decreased over the recent decade. In the United States, international students make up approximately 5.5 of all students in higher education. The top six states that host international students are: California, Massachusetts, New York, Illinois, Texas, and Pennsylvania. Approximately 52% of all international students’ study in the STEM fields with a focus on engineering and Math & Computer Science. Students from India, 80% of students are in the STEM field, 10% are in Business and Management, 3% are in Social Sciences, 2% are in Fine and Applied Arts, and 5% making up all other fields. Other countries with similar features of fields of study is Bangladesh and Nigeria. The number of students who travel to India to study abroad is between 2,500 and 5,000. 26% of students who study abroad are STEM majors. Ethnic diversity and racial diversity have improved from 18% to 30% within the past decade. Women make up approximately two-thirds of students who study abroad. International students have increased significantly over the past decades as students are interested in traveling to another country and gaining their learning experiences while they are young. On the International Student website, it lists ten major reasonings as to why students choose to study abroad. This list includes seeing the world, education, taking in a new culture, developing language skills, career opportunities, finding new interests, making lifelong friends, personal development, graduate school, and the life experiences that come along with it.  

https://p.widencdn.net/6tpaeo/Open-Doors-Annual-Data-Release-2019-11-17-Print https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Project-Atlas/Explore-Data/India https://www.internationalstudent.com/study-abroad/guide/ten-benefits-to-studying-abroad/ 

6. Tourism

by Amy Smith

The graph below shows the rates at which air transportation is the main form of transportation for tourism in and out of India. As observed in the figure below, in the past five years the rate of air travel through the country has had a steady and continuous increase in passengers being carried through the country via air travel. There is no current data for the 2019-2020 year, but it wouldn’t be too far of a stretch to be able to predict that the rate of air travel dropped to almost nothing during the past year due to our lovely little friend Corona. However, the rate has begun to slowly inch its way back up as quarantine slowly begins to lift, and will probably be right back on track to begin to increase as soon as the pandemic is over. The next two points can be a little hard to decipher as they lay almost perfectly right on top of each other, but as seen in the graph below, they are not as identical as they look. For instance, registered carrier departures worldwide have increased at roughly twice the rate of freight air transportation in the past since 2016. Because of that, on the graph registered carrier departures worldwide rests just on top of air freight transport.

Country Name Series Name 2016 [YR2016] 2017 [YR2017] 2018 [YR2018] 2019 [YR2019] 2020 [YR2020]
India Air transport, passengers carried 119577835 139752424 164035637.5 .. ..
India Air transport, registered carrier departures worldwide 917625 1029426 1200111.363 .. ..
India Air transport, freight (million ton-km) 1893.8815 2407.098107 2703.964174 .. ..

Business Environment

1. Income Category

by Cameron Howell

Income category is an important indicator of the country’s level of development. The higher the countries income the more development they can do to improve the country. The first graph shows that India has been steadily increasing since the early 2000’s and has moved from low income to nearly hitting upper middle income. The second graph is GNI per capita in terms of USD in 2010.

2. Market Indicators

by Jordan Robinson

The Gross Domestic Product, GDP, is an important representation of economic production and growth. When an economy is flourishing their GDP growth over time will display as increasing. When an economy is approaching a recession or an economic downturn, the GDP growth over time will display as decreasing.  An Economist looks for positive GDP growth over time to assess how the economy can grow. While the GDP explains the economic growth in the previous quarter/ year, it can be utilized to look at how economic growth and production have affected stocks and past investments. That said an investor would pay attention to the GDP to create an investment strategy. The data displayed was collected from the last 10 years, excluding 2020, between the years 2011 to 2019. All data were retrieved from the World Bank Group.

The GDP growth is the difference between the current year’s GDP to the previous year’s GDP (respectively). The GDP growth ignores the changes in both population and price changes of products. Looking at Figure 1, India has had a steady increase in annual percent growth between 2011 and 2016 (Figure 1). In Figure 1, we see that 2016 is where India begins to peak with a consistent decrease as the data approached 2019 (Figure 1). The table displaying the values for GDP growth annual percentage also shows the steady increase of percentage, then displays the peak in 2016, and finally the decline of annual growth percentage thereafter (Table 1).

The GDP (constant 2010 US$) is a fixed base year, when calculating GDP for another year it is assumed that everything costs the same as it did the base year. Looking at Figure 2, India has had a steady increase in product production from 2011 to 2019 (Figure 2). When looking at the table we can observe the product production increasing from 2011 to 2019 (Table 1).

Table 1: numerical values for both the GDP growth (annual %) and GDP (constant 2010 US$) between 2011 and 2019.
Figure 1: The GDP (constant 2010 US$) values collected between the years 2011 and 2019.
Figure 2: The GDP growth (annual %) values collected between the years 2011 and 2019.
Figure 3: A direct comparison of the GDP (constant 2010 US$) and GDP growth (annual %) over the years 2011 and 2019, graphed by the World Bank Group.

3. Control of Corruption

by Peter Smith

Definition: Control of corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as “capture” of the state by elites and private interests. This table lists the individual variables from each data source used to construct this measure in the Worldwide Governance Indicators

India’s Control of Corruption, over the last nineteen years, has stayed relatively the same, ranging from the mid-thirtieth percentile to the mid fortieth percentile. No drastic changes are visible from the last nineteen years. India is in the bottom half of the world’s nations in terms of ability to control corruption.

4. Rule of Law

by Everyone

Rule of law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. This table lists the individual variables from each data source used to construct this measure in the Worldwide Governance Indicators.

5. Terrorism

by Grace Johnson

Terrorism is defined as the unlawful use of force and violence against people or property in order to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes. This portion provides data that displays the highs and lows of terrorism in India. The fist graph displays the number of incidents of terrorism that occurred in India over time. The second graph demonstrates the number of incidents of terrorism  starting in 2000 to 2018; it shows peaks of attacks in 2009, 2014 and 2016. The third graph shows what institutions or people were targeted during terrorist attacks in India from 2000 to 2018. This graph displays that the police, private citizens, the Indian government, and business were the top four focuses of terrorist attacks from 2000 to 2018.

Graph one: India’s terrorism over time
Graph two: terrorism in India between 2000-2018
Graph three: targets of terrorist attacks in India

https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?charttype=pie&chart=target&casualties_type=b&casualties_max=&start_yearonly=2000&end_yearonly=2018&dtp2=all&country=92

6. Freedom

by Samantha Hampton

In India, the country has a lot of freedom compared to other countries. In 2019, India had an overall score of 75/100 free. However, in 2020, the score has dropped to 71/100 with political rights being 34/40 and civil liberties as 37/60. The country still remains free in 2020, only it has slightly decreased from the previous year. India does particularly well on guaranteeing civil liberties that includes freedom of expression and freedom of religion through the constitution; however, India does particularly poorly on harassment of journalists and creates religious attacks against non-Hindus under the Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party. In terms of political rights, India does particularly well on the electoral process through a free and fair election; however, India does particularly poorly on the financial aspects of political parties that will allow the donors to obscure their identities when donating to their desired political party. In terms of civil liberties, India does particularly well on freedom of assembly when protests occur; however, India does particularly poor on allowing free and independent media because the journalists risk harassment, death, and physical violence while trying to do their job.

7. Government Effectiveness

by Jack Miller

Government effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies. This table lists the individual variables from each data source used to construct this measure in the Worldwide Governance Indicators (The World Bank 2020). Comparatively India’s governmental structure has been increasing over the years. The effectiveness of this government ranks relatively well compared to other southeastern countries analyzed along similar lines.

 

Source: https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/Home/Reports

Source: https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/Home/Reports

1. Food and Housing

by Cameron Howell

Prevalence of undernourishment is measured as a percentage of the population. Data is missing for the year 2019. The prevalence of undernourishment has been decreasing slowly over the period from 2010 to 2018.

Population living in slums is measured as a percentage of urban population. Data is only available for 2010, 2014, 2016, and 2018. The population living in slums decreased from 2010 to 2014, but increased again after.

Country  Year  Indicator 1 – Food

(Prevalence of undernourishment – % of population)

Indicator 2 – Housing 

(Population living in slums – % of urban population)

  India 2010    16.3   29.4
  India 2011    16.3   N/A
  India 2012    16.3   N/A
  India 2013    15.9   N/A
  India 2014    15.3   24.0
  India 2015    14.7   N/A
  India 2016    14.4   35.4
  India 2017    14.2   N/A
  India 2018    14.0   35.2
  India 2019    N/A   N/A

 

2. Water and Sanitation

by Samantha Hampton

Country Year Indicator 1: Water “People using at least basic drinking water services (% of population)” Indicator 2:  Sanitation “People using at least basic sanitation services (% of population)”
   India 2010   86.9 41.5
   India 2011   87.8  44.0
   India 2012   88.6   46.6
   India 2013   89.4   49.2
   India 2014   90.2   51.8
   India 2015   91.0   54.3
   India 2016   91.9   56.9
   India 2017   92.7   59.9
   India 2018   ..   ..
   India 2019   ..   ..

 

3. Basic Health

by Jordan Robinson

Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant before their first year of life (their birthday). The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births. This indicator can give us information about both maternal and infant health and more importantly, the overall health of the society.

Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,00 live births) is defined as the number of maternal deaths during a period per 100,000 live births during that period. Maternal death is defined as the annual number of female deaths from a cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy. This indicator can give us information about the overall health system that caters to women of reproductive age. The maternal mortality ratio represents the risks associated with each pregnancy within that country.

Country

Year

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)
 

 

 

 

India

2010 45.1 210.0
2011 43.0 197.0
2012 40.9 185.0
2013 38.8 175.0
2014 36.9 166.0
2015 34.9 158.0
2016 33.1 150.0
2017 31.4 145.0
2018 29.7
2019 28.3

 

4. Gender Equality and Safety

by Grace Johnson

The data shows the percentage of women who hold a seat in a single or lower chamber of parliament in India. The percentage is derived by dividing the total number of seats occupied by the total number of seats occupied be women. Seats are usually won by members in a general parliamentary election. Seat can also be filled by nomination, appointment, indirect election, rotation of members and by-election. The data above shows the highest percentage of seat held by women in parliament occurred in 2019. The lowest percentage of women in parliament occurred in 2010.

Intentional homicides are defined as unlawful homicides that are purposely inflicted because of domestic disputes, interpersonal violence, violent conflicts, intergang violence, and predatory violence. Intentional homicide does not include all intentional killing; the difference is usually the organization of the killing. The data above shows the lowest amount of intentional homicides per 100,000 people in India occurred in 2017 and 2018. The highest amounts of intentional homicides in India occurred between 2010-2012.

Source: The World Bank

Country Year Gender Equality, women’s participation in decision making Safety, intentional homicides per 100,000 people
India 2010 10.8% 3.8
India 2011 11.0% 3.8
India 2012 11.0% 3.8
India 2013 11.0% 3.6
India 2014 11.4% 3.7
India 2015 12.0% 3.4
India 2016 12.0% 3.2
India 2017 11.8% 3.1
India 2018 11.8% 3.1
India 2019 14.4% .

5. Opportunities

by Jack Miller

Gainful employment is regarded as an employment situation in which the individual employed is receiving steady amounts of work and for their labor – payment. The percentages depicted here shows both the total percentage of the population of India bereft of a gainful employment as well as that number specifically felt by the country’s female population of working age women. In both instances the unemployment seems to be increasing reaching a peak of 5.3% in both categories by the end of the recorded years as compared to earlier years when it hovered around the 2-3% mark.

India Year Total Unemployment Female Unemployment
2010   2.4%   3.3%
2011   2.4%   3.3%
2012   2.7%   3.7%
2013   2.7%   3.7%
2014   2.7%   3.7%
2015   2.7%   3.7%
2016   2.7%   3.7%
2017   2.7%   3.7%
2018   5.3%   5.3%
2019   5.3%   5.3%

Source: The World Bank

6. Air Pollution

by Peter Smith

Air Pollution is considered to be the collection of solid particles and gasses emitted from cars, factories, and other industrial production. This collection of gasses and solid particles can be poisonous or destructive to the atmosphere. One of the largest and most problematic pollutants is CO2 emission from motorized fossil fuel based products. In the table below, the amount of CO2 emissions India experiences per year are measured in metric tons per capita. Likewise, the mortality rate attributed to air pollution is expressed in a separate column, measured in the number of people per a 100,000 population.

Country Year  CO2 Emissions (metric tons per capita) Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution, age-standardized (per 100,000 population)
  India 2010    1.4   .
  India 2011    1.5   .
  India 2012    1.6   .
  India 2013    1.6   .
  India 2014    1.7   .
  India 2015    1.8   .
  India 2016    1.8   184.3
  India 2017    .   .
  India 2018    .   .
  India 2019    .   .

Source: The World Bank

7. Opportunities for specific populations

by Jack Miller

As opposed to simply total and female demographics as shown above, the population can be further broken down into specific populations when measuring the unemployment percentage of India. As shown below this chart measures both those who find themselves unemployed while holding advanced degrees as well as youth of India who are without education or employment. While these two are not strictly comparable it shows that India has an unemployment rate that has been on the increase for those holding degrees, currently situated at 15.3%. As well as the percentage of youth in the country that are not participating in education, employment, or any form of employment training.

India Year Unemployed with Advanced Degrees Share of Youth not in Education, Employment, or Training
2010   7.4%   27.9%
2011   7.4%   27.9%
2012   8.4%   27.5%
2013   8.4%   27.5%
2014   8.4%   27.5%
2015   8.4%   27.5%
2016   8.4%   27.5%
2017   8.4%   27.5%
2018   15.3%   30.4%
2019   15.3%   30.4%