Brazil (BR)

Introduction – Logan P.

Brazil is the largest and most populated country in South America with a total of 217,240,060 citizens; it is ranked as the 7th largest populated country in the world. The majority live on the Atlantic Coast in the east and most of the population is urbanized. Two of the most large-scale cities are Sao Paulo (home to 22.430 million people) and Rio de Janeiro (home to 13.634 million people).

The capital of Brazil is Brasilia.

The dominant language spoken by Brazilians is Portuguese, which is unique to this particular South American country. Considering the fact that Brazil is a large and diverse country, languages of Spanish, English, and German are also commonly used.

Brazil is home to the second largest river in the World, the Amazon River. It is also home to 60% of the World’s rainforest. Due to Brazil’s vast biosphere, it is often referred to as “The Lungs of the Earth” as it combats the effects of climate change.

Rio De Janeiro was at one point the capital of the Portuguese Empire when Napoleon was invading the Iberian Peninsula. This took place from 1815 until 1820.

Extent of Globalization

1. Trade – Mason Staz

This section demonstrates the trade of Brazil, which is taken as a percentage of GDP (gross domestic product). There are patterns that can be seen in the table below, as there is an increase in trade for a few years at a time and then during some years, there is a decrease.

Country Name 20022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Trade (% of GDP) Table

2. Foreign Direct Investment Inflows

Silvia Zarama

The inflows in Brazil began to grow around 2006 and stayed in the higher middle range until 2019, when it fell again.

3. Foreign Direct Investment Outflows

Silvia Zarama

In the last two decades, Brazil’s FDI outflows have been very inconsistent. The maximum outflow per year occurred in 2006 at over 28 billion USD. The minimum was approximately 228 million in 2003. The outflow began to grow drastically in 2005, from the previous maximum of 10 billion USD to nearly 29 billion.

Add Tables & Graphs

4. Attitudes Toward Globalization – Matt

In general, the people of Brazil are in favor of globalization through trade as they feel that it will make their economy better.

QuestionsCountryTimeIncreaseDecreaseDoes Not Make a DifferenceD/K RefusedTotal
Does trade with other countries lead to an increase in the wages of (survey nationality) workers, a decrease in wages, or does it not make a difference?Brazil Spring 20144416356100
Does trade with other countries lead to job creation in (survey country), job losses, or does it not make a difference?Brazil Spring 20145615254100
Does trade with other countries lead to an increase in the price of products sold in (survey country), a decrease in prices, or does it not make a difference?Brazil Spring 20145516254100

5. Internet Access – Logan P.

The rates of internet access in Brazil have increased gradually and data support the prediction that access and users will continue to grow. The rapid level of increasing internet users in the year 2020 is assumed to be caused by the increase in internet during the Covid-19 pandemic. World Development Indicators of the World Bank DataBank show that Brazil is reliant on internet access which proves internet services to be highly relevant in this country. Data can be traced back to 1992, when the top 0.01% of the population used internet services. By 2012, nearly half of Brazil used the internet. By 2020, the percentage of users grew to 81.34%

This graph represents the gradual increase of internet users in Brazil within the last ten years.
Country NameSeries Name2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
BrazilIndividuals using the Internet (% of population)48.5651.0454.5558.3360.8767.4770.4373.9181.34
BrazilSecure Internet servers1405917456227783250384536328718426560578468656211
The number of internet users compared to secure internet servers within the last 10 years.
This graph compares the number of internet users to the number of secure internet servers in Brazil between 2012 and 2020. This represents the highly increasing rates of internet servers. The number of internet users is increasing as well, but it seems flat in this graph because of the extreme increase in servers.

6. Participation in International Agreements – Matt

Brazil is a member of AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

7. Tourism – Logan P.

The tourism indicator includes information on the total number of arrivals and departures of tourists in Brazil as well as payments to international carriers for transportation into and from Brazil. Receipts and expenditures are calculated based on the percentage of total exports and imports to Brazil. Receipts and expenditures are also analyzed through costs of passenger transport and travel items. The World Data Bank provides a transformation of total imports and exports from Brazilian currency to U.S. dollars for comparison. The immense diversity of Brazil contributes to it’s high tourism rates. Data can be traced back to 1995 and extends to 2020 using the World Development Indicators available through the World Bank’s DataBank.

This chart represents all tourism data collected from Brazil within the last 10 years. It includes total rates of receipts and expenditures, imports and exports, and travel/transportation items in U.S. dollars.


Most recent data from 2019 shows that 6,353,000 people arrived to Brazil throughout the year. The number of arrivials the year before was 6,621,000 which is the highest reported number of arrivals in Brazil’s history. The decrease in tourism rates in the following years may be caused by pandemic restrictions. Despite recent years, tourism drastically increased in Brazil throughout the past ten years.


Most recent data from 2018 shows 10,628,000 departures from Brazil. This number increased from the year before in which there were 10,610,000 departures. This is evidence that rates of departure are increasing at a higher rate than the number of arrivals. The most significant increase can be seen between 2015 and 2018 (9,478,000 departures to 10,628,000).

A comparison of the total number of arrivals and departures in Brazil between 2012 and 2012.

Receipts (% of total exports)

The total percentage of receipts of exports gradually increased in Braziil up until 2016 in which there was a decrease from 3.04% (2016) to 2.45% (2017) to 2.30% (2018). This trend seems to be continuing as 2020 had the lowest reported percentage of exports which was calculated as 1.30%.

Expenditures (% of total imports)

The rates of imports in Brazil are much higher than the rates of exports. In 2012, 8.55% of imports were recorded which increased to 8.99% in 2013 and then again to 9.41% in 2014. Rates began decreasing in 2015 (8.37%), but increased to the highest reported percentage of imports in 2017 (9.85%). A decrease occured again in 2018, and by 2020, the lowest percentage of imports was reported at 2.85%. Nonetheless, this percentage remains higher than percentage of total receipts.

A comparison of the total percentage of receipts and expenditures in Brazil between 2012 and 2020.

8. Immigration & Emigration Remittances – Mason Staz

This section describes how much money it cost for immigration and emigration remittances. This is the amount of money that migrants send back to families who still live in the country.

Country NameSeries Name2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
BrazilAverage transaction cost of sending remittances from a specific country (%)
BrazilAverage transaction cost of sending remittances to a specific country (%)12.911.
BrazilPersonal remittances, paid (current US$)1.06E+091.15E+091.54E+091.34E+091.39E+092.24E+092.25E+092.23E+091.61E+09..
BrazilPersonal remittances, received (% of GDP)
BrazilPersonal remittances, received (current US$)2.78E+092.72E+092.65E+092.9E+092.74E+092.7E+092.93E+093.21E+093.57E+09..

9. Freedom – Logan Pasley

As seen in Figure 1, Brazil’s total global score is 73/100 and the country status is free for the most recent year, 2022. In 2021, Brazil’s total global score was 74/100. As of 2022, Brazil’s political rights score is 31/40 and its Civil Liberties score is 42/60. ( )

Political Rights Score

In terms of political rights, this country does particularly well on maintaining relatively free and fair legislative elections as election laws are generally well enforced; this country does particularly poorly on controlling high-level corruption scandals, pre-election threats, violent crimes towards candidates, and exclusion of minority voters.

Civil Liberties Score

In terms of civil liberties, this country does particularly well on ensuring freedom of expression, religious belief, and public expression without concern of surveillance; this country does particularly poorly on controlling harassment, discrimination, threats, spread of false information, corruption, and violence.

Figure 1: Brazil’s total global freedom score in 2022 and 2021. Brazil’s political rights score and civil liberties score in 2022.

10. Income Category – Logan Pasley

As seen in Figure 2, Brazil falls into the upper-middle/ high-income category as of 2020. There was a decrease in Brazil’s total income within the last year. In 1990, Brazil was in the lower-middle/ upper-middle income category. ( )

Figure 2: Comparison of GNI per Capita and Income Thresholds (current US$) in Brazil, China, and the United States between 1990 and 2020.

Indicator of Brazil’s Level of Development ( ):

YearGNI per Capita (constant 2015 US$)

11. Market Indicators – Mason Staz

Year GDP per capita (constant 2015 US$)
Figure 1. Table of GDP per capita (constant 2015 US$) for Brazil

Figure 2. Chart of GDP per capita (constant 2015 US$)

Year GDP growth (annual %)
Figure 3. Table of GDP growth (annual %) for Brazil

Figure 4. Chart of GDP growth (annual %) for Brazil.

Year Inflation, Consumer Prices (annual %)
Figure 5. Table showing inflation, consumer prices (annual %) for Brazil

Figure 6. Chart of Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) for Brazil

12. Control Of Corruption – Silvia Zarama

Control of corruption refers to how often public power is used for personal or private gain.

13. Rule Of Law – Silvia Zarama

Rule of law sets limits to the power that a government has over its people.

14. Terrorism – Matt Smith

15. Government Effectiveness – Matt Smith